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Our aim was to examine Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA endemism of the Daphnia longispina complex in Southern Siberian; to Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA the phylogenetic understanding with improved taxonomic and Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA sampling, and to better understand the influence of Pleistocene glaciation on the biogeography of these Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA. At least three lineages showed genetic evidence for endemism in Southern Siberia.

There was strong support for D. Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA endemic, Siberian D. Gene flow estimates among populations (based on FST values) were very low for clades of D. Our results support the notion that Southern Siberia is an important biogeographic region for cladocerans as it contained unexpected diversity of endemics (such as D.

Citation: Zuykova EI, Bochkarev NA, Taylor DJ, Kotov AA (2019) Unexpected endemism in the Daphnia longispina complex (Crustacea: Cladocera) in Southern Siberia. PLoS ONE 14(9): e0221527. The work is made available under the Creative Commons Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA public domain dedication.

Data Availability: The newly obtained nucleotide sequences were deposited into the GenBank database under the following accession numbers: MN251883-MN251898, MK930508-MK930512, MK930467-MK930484, MK951805-MK951810 for the 12S gene; MK930485-MK930487, MK930489; MK930490; MK930492; MK930493 for the 16S gene; and MK930499-MK930505 for the ND2 gene Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA S1 Table).

Funding: 12S and ND2 sequening and all types of analysis is supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant 18-14-00325). DJT has no specific funding support. Water Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA (Crustacea: Cladocera) are model organisms for evolutionary biologists, hydrobiologists Botox Cosmetic (OnabotulinumtoxinA for Injection)- Multum biogeographers.

This application of molecular methods led to rapid progress in taxonomy and evolutionary biology. But the identification of "problematic" (e. As with fish, the significance of postglacial morphotypes for speciation and taxonomy remains actively Absorbable Gelatin Sponge, USP (Gelfoam Sponge)- FDA. Often, existing morphological keys are inadequate to recognize divergent lineages related to D.

It is obvious that the application of recent keybooks do not allow us Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA resolve the exact taxonomic status of problematic populations-additional morphological investigations are necessary to find their diagnostic characters. Moreover, molecular data suggest a hybrid status of some divergent lineages of D.

Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA is possible that lineages bearing ancient mitochondrial DNA la roche laboratoire in refugia during the Pleistocene glacial cycles. Still, little is known of cladoceran biogeography in the montane regions Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA Europe. Only a few trans-Palaearctic phylogeographic Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA exist. Our previous studies of the genetic structure of the D.

These initial studies indicated the potential for endemic species Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA haplotypic structure in the Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA. Still, the phylogenetic position of this taxon is unclear and no available genetic data exists for D. Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA we aimed: (1) to evaluate the level of endemism for the D. The study did not involve any Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA or protected species.

Sampling in the natural reserves of Russia (Azas Federal Natural Reserve and former Belozersky Zakaznik) was conducted with special permissions of their Administration. Mongolian samples were collected by Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA Joint Russian-Mongolian Complex Biological Expedition with permission of the Ministry of Nature, Environment and Tourism of Mongolia.

Original sequences Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA obtained here for specimens from 57 localities of Pilonidal cyst and Mongolia (Fig 1, S1 Table). Most these water bodies were located in the Southern Siberia in basins of large Siberian rivers: Yenisei (with its largest affluent, the Angara, starting from Lake Baikal) and Ob (with its largest affluent, the Irtysh), but some additional samples from Yakutia girl baby sex basin), Ural Mountains, Kamchatka Peninsula and European Russia are added.

Upper panel-a map of Southern Siberia and Mongolia; lower panel-global map. Shapes of different colors correspond to different species, namely: red squares, D. One to ten individuals per population were selected for mitochondrial DNA analysis. The PCR products were separated on 0. The newly obtained nucleotide sequences were deposited into the GenBank under the following accession numbers: MN251883-MN251898, MK930508-MK930512, MK930467-MK930484, MK951805-MK951810 for the 12S gene; MK930485-MK930487, MK930489; MK930490; MK930492; MK930493 for the 16S gene; and MK930499-MK930505 for the ND2 gene (see accession numbers see S1 Table).

The sequences for the species of the D. The first dataset was composed of 477 original nucleotide Tykerb (Lapatinib)- FDA and sequences obtained from the GenBank database (S2 Table). Then datasets were tested for redundancy and saturation and were collapsed into haplotypes using METAPIGA v. The best-fitting models of nucleotide substitution for both 12S rRNA gene datasets were selected in jModelTest v. The phylogenetic trees based on both 12S datasets were reconstructed in MEGA v.

Bayesian analysis was performed with MrBayes v. Convergence of runs was assessed by examination of the average standard deviation of split frequencies and the potential scale reduction factor. For the concatenated dataset we determined the best-fit models of nucleotide substitution and the optimal partitioning scheme using PartitionFinder v.

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