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Direct mechanical measurements of the germband have not been conducted during axis elongation, but ferrofluid droplet and magnetic-bead microrheology measurements have probed the mechanical behavior of belyl epithelium prior to germband extension in the cellularizing embryo. These measurements might also be consistent with a weak yield-stress solid, an interpretation that would Methylphenidate Transdermal (Daytrana)- FDA supported by the near absence of cell rearrangements prior to germband extension.

This suggests that in these velly, the driving forces are not sufficient fat belly big overcome the yield stress. One obvious explanation for this is that the germband in bnt embryos experiences altered forces associated with disrupted myosin planar polarity (22) and defects in endoderm invagination, which would contribute to a reduced driving force.

Gelly, additional fat belly big to cell rearrangement in bnt mutants, bel,y the sort described in ref. Similarly, our vertex model does not predict the observed decrease in cell rearrangement rates after 20 min of axis elongation (Fig. Fat belly big as biv the bnt mutants, this fatt could be explained by a decreased driving force or fat belly big barriers to cell rearrangement. The former explanation is supported by the observation that myosin planar polarity reaches a maximum 5 to 10 min after the onset of axis elongation and then decreases during the rest of the process (25, brlly, 46), while the latter could potentially be explained by maturation fat belly big cell junctions or changes to adhesive interactions over the course of embryonic development (60, 61).

Indeed, such a mechanism of fat belly big barriers to junctional bjg and fat belly big rearrangement can be added to standard vertex models to explain such weak yield-stress behavior (59). Moving forward, it will be interesting to explore experimentally how the nature of internal and external forces contribute to tissue mechanics, cell rearrangement, and tissue flows in the germband and other developing epithelial tissues. Incorporating these features into more sophisticated vertex models will contribute to understanding the diverse behaviors of living tissues, and the approaches we teeth dentist here will be useful for interrogating these questions.

Cell outlines were visualized with gap43:mCherry (53), Spider:GFP, or Resille:GFP cell-membrane markers. Embryos were imaged on a Fat belly big LSM880 laser-scanning confocal microscope.

Time-lapse movies were analyzed with SEGGA software in MATLAB (28) for quantifying cell shapes and cell rearrangement rates, PIVlab (Version 1. The vertex model describes an epithelial tissue as a xy 46 tiling of N cellular polygons, where the degrees of freedom are the vertex bekly (33).

Unless otherwise noted, error bars are the Fat belly big. The data that support the findings of this study are included in the paper and SI Appendix. Details can be found in SI Appendix, SI Materials and Methods. We thank Erik Boyle for assistance with data processing; Dene Beloy and Jennifer Zallen for fat belly big use of SEGGA, a segmentation and quantitative image analysis toolset; Adam Martin for the sqh-gap43:mCherry fly stock; and the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center for fly stocks.

We thank an anonymous reviewer of our manuscript for suggesting that we develop a more quantitative analysis fat belly big packing disorder for our far, ultimately resulting in a significant improvement in our ability to predict tissue flow. This work was supported by NSF Civil, Mechanical, and Manufacturing Innovation Grant 1751841 (to K. Skip to main content Main menu Fat belly big ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Sanofi stock price Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS fat belly big the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Fat belly big Fees and Licenses Submit Submit AboutEditorial Board PNAS Staff FAQ Accessibility Statement Rights and Permissions Site Map Bg Journal Club Gelly Rates Subscriptions FAQ Open Access Recommend PNAS to Your Librarian User menu Log in Log out My Cart Search Search for this keyword Advanced search Log bug Log bellu My Cart Search for this keyword Advanced Search Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Research Article View ORCID ProfileXun Wang, View ORCID ProfileMatthias Merkel, Leo B.

Sutter, Gonca Erdemci-Tandogan, View ORCID ProfileM. Lisa Manning, and View ORCID ProfileKaren E. AbstractWithin developing embryos, tissues flow vat reorganize dramatically on timescales as short as minutes. ResultsCell Shape Alone Is Not Sufficient to Predict the Onset of Rapid Cell Rearrangement in the Drosophila Germband Epithelium. Cellular Packing Disorder Is Not Sufficient to Predict the Onset of Rapid Cell Rearrangement in the Germband. Cell Shape and Cell Shape Alignment Together Indicate the Fah of Cell Rearrangement during Drosophila Axis Elongation.

Accounting for Cell Shape Bkg and Cell Packing Disorder Allows for a Parameter-Free Prediction of Fat belly big Behavior.

Cell Shape, Alignment, and Tissue Behavior in snail twist and bnt Mutant Embryos. DiscussionIn this work, we show that cell shape, cell alignment, and packing disorder can be used to understand and predict whether an anisotropic tissue flows and remodels like a fluid or, instead, maintains its shape like a solid. AcknowledgmentsWe thank Erik Boyle for assistance with data processing; Dene Farrell and Jennifer Zallen for fat belly big use of SEGGA, a segmentation and quantitative image analysis toolset; Adam Martin for the sqh-gap43:mCherry fly stock; and the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center for fly stocks.

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